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c\Name: dsaupd
c  Reverse communication interface for the Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi 
c  Iteration.  For symmetric problems this reduces to a variant of the Lanczos 
c  method.  This method has been designed to compute approximations to a 
c  few eigenpairs of a linear operator OP that is real and symmetric 
c  with respect to a real positive semi-definite symmetric matrix B, 
c  i.e.
c       B*OP = (OP')*B.  
c  Another way to express this condition is 
c       < x,OPy > = < OPx,y >  where < z,w > = z'Bw  .
c  In the standard eigenproblem B is the identity matrix.  
c  ( A' denotes transpose of A)
c  The computed approximate eigenvalues are called Ritz values and
c  the corresponding approximate eigenvectors are called Ritz vectors.
c  dsaupd is usually called iteratively to solve one of the 
c  following problems:
c  Mode 1:  A*x = lambda*x, A symmetric 
c           ===> OP = A  and  B = I.
c  Mode 2:  A*x = lambda*M*x, A symmetric, M symmetric positive definite
c           ===> OP = inv[M]*A  and  B = M.
c           ===> (If M can be factored see remark 3 below)
c  Mode 3:  K*x = lambda*M*x, K symmetric, M symmetric positive semi-definite
c           ===> OP = (inv[K - sigma*M])*M  and  B = M. 
c           ===> Shift-and-Invert mode
c  Mode 4:  K*x = lambda*KG*x, K symmetric positive semi-definite, 
c           KG symmetric indefinite
c           ===> OP = (inv[K - sigma*KG])*K  and  B = K.
c           ===> Buckling mode
c  Mode 5:  A*x = lambda*M*x, A symmetric, M symmetric positive semi-definite
c           ===> OP = inv[A - sigma*M]*[A + sigma*M]  and  B = M.
c           ===> Cayley transformed mode
c  NOTE: The action of w <- inv[A - sigma*M]*v or w <- inv[M]*v
c        should be accomplished either by a direct method
c        using a sparse matrix factorization and solving
c           [A - sigma*M]*w = v  or M*w = v,
c        or through an iterative method for solving these
c        systems.  If an iterative method is used, the
c        convergence test must be more stringent than
c        the accuracy requirements for the eigenvalue
c        approximations.
c  call dsaupd 
c  IDO     Integer.  (INPUT/OUTPUT)
c          Reverse communication flag.  IDO must be zero on the first 
c          call to dsaupd.  IDO will be set internally to
c          indicate the type of operation to be performed.  Control is
c          then given back to the calling routine which has the
c          responsibility to carry out the requested operation and call
c          dsaupd with the result.  The operand is given in
c          WORKD(IPNTR(1)), the result must be put in WORKD(IPNTR(2)).
c          (If Mode = 2 see remark 5 below)
c          -------------------------------------------------------------
c          IDO =  0: first call to the reverse communication interface
c          IDO = -1: compute  Y = OP * X  where
c                    IPNTR(1) is the pointer into WORKD for X,
c                    IPNTR(2) is the pointer into WORKD for Y.
c                    This is for the initialization phase to force the
c                    starting vector into the range of OP.
c          IDO =  1: compute  Y = OP * Z  and Z = B * X where
c                    IPNTR(1) is the pointer into WORKD for X,
c                    IPNTR(2) is the pointer into WORKD for Y,
c                    IPNTR(3) is the pointer into WORKD for Z.
c          IDO =  2: compute  Y = B * X  where
c                    IPNTR(1) is the pointer into WORKD for X,
c                    IPNTR(2) is the pointer into WORKD for Y.
c          IDO =  3: compute the IPARAM(8) shifts where
c                    IPNTR(11) is the pointer into WORKL for
c                    placing the shifts. See remark 6 below.
c          IDO = 99: done
c          -------------------------------------------------------------
c          After the initialization phase, when the routine is used in 
c          either the "shift-and-invert" mode or the Cayley transform
c          mode, the vector B * X is already available and does not 
c          need to be recomputed in forming OP*X.
c  BMAT    Character*1.  (INPUT)
c          BMAT specifies the type of the matrix B that defines the
c          semi-inner product for the operator OP.
c          B = 'I' -> standard eigenvalue problem A*x = lambda*x
c          B = 'G' -> generalized eigenvalue problem A*x = lambda*B*x
c  N       Integer.  (INPUT)
c          Dimension of the eigenproblem.
c  WHICH   Character*2.  (INPUT)
c          Specify which of the Ritz values of OP to compute.
c          'LA' - compute the NEV largest (algebraic) eigenvalues.
c          'SA' - compute the NEV smallest (algebraic) eigenvalues.
c          'LM' - compute the NEV largest (in magnitude) eigenvalues.
c          'SM' - compute the NEV smallest (in magnitude) eigenvalues. 
c          'BE' - compute NEV eigenvalues, half from each end of the
c                 spectrum.  When NEV is odd, compute one more from the
c                 high end than from the low end.
c           (see remark 1 below)
c  NEV     Integer.  (INPUT)
c          Number of eigenvalues of OP to be computed. 0 < NEV < N.
c  TOL     Double precision scalar.  (INPUT)
c          Stopping criterion: the relative accuracy of the Ritz value 
c          is considered acceptable if BOUNDS(I) .LE. TOL*ABS(RITZ(I)).
c          If TOL .LE. 0. is passed a default is set:
c          DEFAULT = DLAMCH('EPS')  (machine precision as computed
c                    by the LAPACK auxiliary subroutine DLAMCH).
c  RESID   Double precision array of length N.  (INPUT/OUTPUT)
c          On INPUT: 
c          If INFO .EQ. 0, a random initial residual vector is used.
c          If INFO .NE. 0, RESID contains the initial residual vector,
c                          possibly from a previous run.
c          On OUTPUT:
c          RESID contains the final residual vector. 
c  NCV     Integer.  (INPUT)
c          Number of columns of the matrix V (less than or equal to N).
c          This will indicate how many Lanczos vectors are generated 
c          at each iteration.  After the startup phase in which NEV 
c          Lanczos vectors are generated, the algorithm generates 
c          NCV-NEV Lanczos vectors at each subsequent update iteration.
c          Most of the cost in generating each Lanczos vector is in the 
c          matrix-vector product OP*x. (See remark 4 below).
c  V       Double precision N by NCV array.  (OUTPUT)
c          The NCV columns of V contain the Lanczos basis vectors.
c  LDV     Integer.  (INPUT)
c          Leading dimension of V exactly as declared in the calling
c          program.
c  IPARAM  Integer array of length 11.  (INPUT/OUTPUT)
c          IPARAM(1) = ISHIFT: method for selecting the implicit shifts.
c          The shifts selected at each iteration are used to restart
c          the Arnoldi iteration in an implicit fashion.
c          -------------------------------------------------------------
c          ISHIFT = 0: the shifts are provided by the user via
c                      reverse communication.  The NCV eigenvalues of
c                      the current tridiagonal matrix T are returned in
c                      the part of WORKL array corresponding to RITZ.
c                      See remark 6 below.
c          ISHIFT = 1: exact shifts with respect to the reduced 
c                      tridiagonal matrix T.  This is equivalent to 
c                      restarting the iteration with a starting vector 
c                      that is a linear combination of Ritz vectors 
c                      associated with the "wanted" Ritz values.
c          -------------------------------------------------------------
c          IPARAM(2) = LEVEC
c          No longer referenced. See remark 2 below.
c          IPARAM(3) = MXITER
c          On INPUT:  maximum number of Arnoldi update iterations allowed. 
c          On OUTPUT: actual number of Arnoldi update iterations taken. 
c          IPARAM(4) = NB: blocksize to be used in the recurrence.
c          The code currently works only for NB = 1.
c          IPARAM(5) = NCONV: number of "converged" Ritz values.
c          This represents the number of Ritz values that satisfy
c          the convergence criterion.
c          IPARAM(6) = IUPD
c          No longer referenced. Implicit restarting is ALWAYS used. 
c          IPARAM(7) = MODE
c          On INPUT determines what type of eigenproblem is being solved.
c          Must be 1,2,3,4,5; See under \Description of dsaupd for the 
c          five modes available.
c          IPARAM(8) = NP
c          When ido = 3 and the user provides shifts through reverse
c          communication (IPARAM(1)=0), dsaupd returns NP, the number
c          of shifts the user is to provide. 0 < NP <=NCV-NEV. See Remark
c          6 below.
c          IPARAM(9) = NUMOP, IPARAM(10) = NUMOPB, IPARAM(11) = NUMREO,
c          OUTPUT: NUMOP  = total number of OP*x operations,
c                  NUMOPB = total number of B*x operations if BMAT='G',
c                  NUMREO = total number of steps of re-orthogonalization.        
c  IPNTR   Integer array of length 11.  (OUTPUT)
c          Pointer to mark the starting locations in the WORKD and WORKL
c          arrays for matrices/vectors used by the Lanczos iteration.
c          -------------------------------------------------------------
c          IPNTR(1): pointer to the current operand vector X in WORKD.
c          IPNTR(2): pointer to the current result vector Y in WORKD.
c          IPNTR(3): pointer to the vector B * X in WORKD when used in 
c                    the shift-and-invert mode.
c          IPNTR(4): pointer to the next available location in WORKL
c                    that is untouched by the program.
c          IPNTR(5): pointer to the NCV by 2 tridiagonal matrix T in WORKL.
c          IPNTR(6): pointer to the NCV RITZ values array in WORKL.
c          IPNTR(7): pointer to the Ritz estimates in array WORKL associated
c                    with the Ritz values located in RITZ in WORKL.
c          Note: IPNTR(8:10) is only referenced by dseupd. See Remark 2.
c          IPNTR(8): pointer to the NCV RITZ values of the original system.
c          IPNTR(9): pointer to the NCV corresponding error bounds.
c          IPNTR(10): pointer to the NCV by NCV matrix of eigenvectors
c                     of the tridiagonal matrix T. Only referenced by
c                     dseupd if RVEC = .TRUE. See Remarks.
c          Note: IPNTR(8:10) is only referenced by dseupd. See Remark 2.
c          IPNTR(11): pointer to the NP shifts in WORKL. See Remark 6 below.
c          -------------------------------------------------------------
c  WORKD   Double precision work array of length 3*N.  (REVERSE COMMUNICATION)
c          Distributed array to be used in the basic Arnoldi iteration
c          for reverse communication.  The user should not use WORKD 
c          as temporary workspace during the iteration. Upon termination
c          WORKD(1:N) contains B*RESID(1:N). If the Ritz vectors are desired
c          subroutine dseupd uses this output.
c          See Data Distribution Note below.  
c  WORKL   Double precision work array of length LWORKL.  (OUTPUT/WORKSPACE)
c          Private (replicated) array on each PE or array allocated on
c          the front end.  See Data Distribution Note below.
c  LWORKL  Integer.  (INPUT)
c          LWORKL must be at least NCV**2 + 8*NCV .
c  INFO    Integer.  (INPUT/OUTPUT)
c          If INFO .EQ. 0, a randomly initial residual vector is used.
c          If INFO .NE. 0, RESID contains the initial residual vector,
c                          possibly from a previous run.
c          Error flag on output.
c          =  0: Normal exit.
c          =  1: Maximum number of iterations taken.
c                All possible eigenvalues of OP has been found. IPARAM(5)  
c                returns the number of wanted converged Ritz values.
c          =  2: No longer an informational error. Deprecated starting
c                with release 2 of ARPACK.
c          =  3: No shifts could be applied during a cycle of the 
c                Implicitly restarted Arnoldi iteration. One possibility 
c                is to increase the size of NCV relative to NEV. 
c                See remark 4 below.
c          = -1: N must be positive.
c          = -2: NEV must be positive.
c          = -3: NCV must be greater than NEV and less than or equal to N.
c          = -4: The maximum number of Arnoldi update iterations allowed
c                must be greater than zero.
c          = -5: WHICH must be one of 'LM', 'SM', 'LA', 'SA' or 'BE'.
c          = -6: BMAT must be one of 'I' or 'G'.
c          = -7: Length of private work array WORKL is not sufficient.
c          = -8: Error return from trid. eigenvalue calculation;
c                Informational error from LAPACK routine dsteqr.
c          = -9: Starting vector is zero.
c          = -10: IPARAM(7) must be 1,2,3,4,5.
c          = -11: IPARAM(7) = 1 and BMAT = 'G' are incompatable.
c          = -12: IPARAM(1) must be equal to 0 or 1.
c          = -13: NEV and WHICH = 'BE' are incompatable.
c          = -9999: Could not build an Arnoldi factorization.
c                   IPARAM(5) returns the size of the current Arnoldi
c                   factorization. The user is advised to check that
c                   enough workspace and array storage has been allocated.
c  1. The converged Ritz values are always returned in ascending 
c     algebraic order.  The computed Ritz values are approximate
c     eigenvalues of OP.  The selection of WHICH should be made
c     with this in mind when Mode = 3,4,5.  After convergence, 
c     approximate eigenvalues of the original problem may be obtained 
c     with the ARPACK subroutine dseupd. 
c  2. If the Ritz vectors corresponding to the converged Ritz values
c     are needed, the user must call dseupd immediately following completion
c     of dsaupd. This is new starting with version 2.1 of ARPACK.
c  3. If M can be factored into a Cholesky factorization M = LL'
c     then Mode = 2 should not be selected.  Instead one should use
c     Mode = 1 with  OP = inv(L)*A*inv(L').  Appropriate triangular 
c     linear systems should be solved with L and L' rather
c     than computing inverses.  After convergence, an approximate
c     eigenvector z of the original problem is recovered by solving
c     L'z = x  where x is a Ritz vector of OP.
c  4. At present there is no a-priori analysis to guide the selection
c     of NCV relative to NEV.  The only formal requirement is that NCV > NEV.
c     However, it is recommended that NCV .ge. 2*NEV.  If many problems of
c     the same type are to be solved, one should experiment with increasing
c     NCV while keeping NEV fixed for a given test problem.  This will 
c     usually decrease the required number of OP*x operations but it
c     also increases the work and storage required to maintain the orthogonal
c     basis vectors.   The optimal "cross-over" with respect to CPU time
c     is problem dependent and must be determined empirically.
c  5. If IPARAM(7) = 2 then in the Reverse communication interface the user
c     must do the following. When IDO = 1, Y = OP * X is to be computed.
c     When IPARAM(7) = 2 OP = inv(B)*A. After computing A*X the user
c     must overwrite X with A*X. Y is then the solution to the linear set
c     of equations B*Y = A*X.
c  6. When IPARAM(1) = 0, and IDO = 3, the user needs to provide the 
c     NP = IPARAM(8) shifts in locations: 
c     1   WORKL(IPNTR(11))           
c     2   WORKL(IPNTR(11)+1)         
c                        .           
c                        .           
c                        .      
c     NP  WORKL(IPNTR(11)+NP-1). 
c     The eigenvalues of the current tridiagonal matrix are located in 
c     WORKL(IPNTR(6)) through WORKL(IPNTR(6)+NCV-1). They are in the
c     order defined by WHICH. The associated Ritz estimates are located in
c     WORKL(IPNTR(8)), WORKL(IPNTR(8)+1), ... , WORKL(IPNTR(8)+NCV-1).

Chao Yang