Introduction
In this example, we check the correctness behavior of SFEMaNS for a hydrodynamic problem with a solid obstacle involving Dirichlet boundary conditions.
We solve the NavierStokes equations:
\begin{align*} \partial_t\bu+\left(\ROT\bu\right)\CROSS\bu  \frac{1}{\Re}\LAP \bu +\GRAD p &=\bef \text{ in } \Omega_1, \\ \bu & = 0 \text{ in } \Omega_2, \\ \DIV \bu &= 0, \\ \bu_{\Gamma} &= \bu_{\text{bdy}} , \\ \bu_{t=0} &= \bu_0, \\ p_{t=0} &= p_0, \end{align*}
in the domain \(\Omega= \Omega_1 \cup \Omega_2\) with \( \Omega_1=\{ (r,\theta,z) \in {R}^3 : (r,\theta,z) \in [0.1,1/2] \times [0,2\pi) \times [0,1]\}\) and \(\Omega_2=\{ (r,\theta,z) \in {R}^3 : (r,\theta,z) \in [1/2,1] \times [0,2\pi) \times [0,1]\} \). We also define \(\Gamma= \partial \Omega \). We note that the condition \(\bu=0\) in \(\Omega_2\) is imposed via a penalty method that involves a penalty function \(\chi\) equal to 1 in \(\Omega_1\) and zero elsewhere. The data are the source term \(\bef\), the penalty function \(\chi\), the boundary data \(\bu_{\text{bdy}}\), the initial datas \(\bu_0\) and \(p_0\). The parameter \(\Re\) is the kinetic Reynolds number.
Manufactured solutions
We approximate the following analytical solutions:
\begin{align*} u_r(r,\theta,z,t) &= (2r1)^2 \sin(r+t) \mathbb{1}_{r\geq0.5}, \\ u_{\theta}(r,\theta,z,t) &= 0, \\ u_z(r,\theta,z,t) &= \left( (21/r) (6r1) \cos(r+t) + (r0.5) \sin(2\theta) \right) \mathbb{1}_{r\geq0.5}, \\ p(r,\theta,z,t) &= r^2 z^3\cos(t) + r \cos(\theta) , \end{align*}
with \( \mathbb{1}_{r\geq0.5} \) the function equals to \(r\geq0.5\) if \( \) and \(0\) elsewhere. The source term \(\bef\) and the boundary data \( \bu_{\text{bdy}}\) are computed accordingly.
Generation of the mesh
The finite element mesh used for this test is named cylinder_0.05.FEM
and has a mesh size of \(0.05\) for the P1 approximation. You can generate this mesh with the files in the following directory: ($SFEMaNS_MESH_GEN_DIR)/EXAMPLES/EXAMPLES_MANUFACTURED_SOLUTIONS/cylinder_0.05. The following image shows the mesh for P1 finite elements.
Finite element mesh (P1).

Information on the file condlim.f90
The initial conditions, boundary conditions, the forcing term and the penalty function are set in the file condlim_test_24.f90
. Here is a description of the subroutines and functions of interest.

The subroutine
init_velocity_pressure
initializes the velocity field and the pressure at the time \(dt\) and \(0\) with \(dt\) being the time step. It is done by using the functions vv_exact and pp_exact as follows: time = 0.d0
DO i= 1, SIZE(list_mode)
mode = list_mode(i)
DO j = 1, 6
!===velocity
un_m1(:,j,i) = vv_exact(j,mesh_f%rr,mode,timedt)
un (:,j,i) = vv_exact(j,mesh_f%rr,mode,time)
END DO
DO j = 1, 2
!===pressure
pn_m2(:) = pp_exact(j,mesh_c%rr,mode,time2*dt)
pn_m1 (:,j,i) = pp_exact(j,mesh_c%rr,mode,timedt)
pn (:,j,i) = pp_exact(j,mesh_c%rr,mode,time)
phin_m1(:,j,i) = pn_m1(:,j,i)  pn_m2(:)
phin (:,j,i) = Pn (:,j,i)  pn_m1(:,j,i)
ENDDO
ENDDO

The function
vv_exact
contains the analytical velocity field. It is used to initialize the velocity field and to impose Dirichlet boundary conditions on the velocity field.

First we define the radial and vertical coordinates r, z.

We define the velocity field depending of the Fourier mode and its TYPE (1 and 2 for the component radial cosine and sine, 3 and 4 for the component azimuthal cosine and sine, 5 and 6 for the component vertical cosine and sine) as follows:
IF (TYPE==1.AND.m==0) THEN
DO n = 1, SIZE(rr,2)
IF (rr(1,n)>0.5d0) THEN
vv(n) = (2*rr(1,n)1)**2*SIN(rr(2,n)+t)
ELSE
vv(n) = 0.d0
END IF
END DO
ELSE IF (TYPE==5.AND.m==0) THEN
DO n = 1, SIZE(rr,2)
IF (rr(1,n)>0.5d0) THEN
vv(n) = (21.d0/rr(1,n))*(6*rr(1,n)1)*COS(rr(2,n)+t)
ELSE
vv(n) = 0.d0
END IF
END DO
ELSE IF (TYPE==6.AND.m==2) THEN
DO n = 1, SIZE(rr,2)
IF (rr(1,n)>0.5d0) THEN
vv(n) = rr(1,n)0.5d0
ELSE
vv(n) = 0.d0
END IF
END DO
ELSE
vv = 0.d0
END IF
RETURN
where \(t\) is the time.

The function
pp_exact
contains the analytical pressure. It is used to initialize the pressure.

First we define the radial and vertical coordinates r, z.

We define the pressure depending of the Fourier mode and its TYPE (1 for cosine and 2 for sine) as follows:
IF (TYPE==1.AND.m==0) THEN
ELSE IF (TYPE==1.AND.m==1) THEN
vv(:) = r
ELSE
vv = 0.d0
END IF
RETURN
where \(t\) is the time.

The function
source_in_NS_momentum
computes the source term \(\bef\) of the NavierStokes equations.

The function
penal_in_real_space
define the penalty function \(\chi\) in the real space (depending of the node in the meridian plan and its angle n). It is done as follows: DO n = nb, ne
n_loc = n  nb + 1
IF (rr_gauss(1,n_loc).LE.0.5d0) THEN
vv(:,n_loc) = 0.d0
ELSE
vv(:,n_loc) = 1.d0
END IF
END DO
RETURN
As defined earlier, this function is equal to one when the cylindrical coordinate r is smaller than 0.5 and else is equal to 1.

The function
imposed_velocity_by_penalty
defines the velocity in the solid domain \(\Omega_2\). It is set to zero as follows:
All the other subroutines present in the file condlim_test_24.f90
are not used in this test. We refer to the section Fortran file condlim.f90 for a description of all the subroutines of the condlim file.
Setting in the data file
We describe the data file of this test. It is called debug_data_test_24
and can be found in the directory ($SFEMaNS_DIR)/MHD_DATA_TEST_CONV_PETSC.

We use a formatted mesh by setting:
===Is mesh file formatted (true/false)?
.t.

The path and the name of the mesh are specified with the two following lines:
===Directory and name of mesh file
'.' 'cylinder_0.05.FEM'
where '.' refers to the directory where the data file is, meaning ($SFEMaNS_DIR)/MHD_DATA_TEST_CONV_PETSC.

We use two processors in the meridian section. It means the finite element mesh is subdivised in two.
===Number of processors in meridian section
2

We solve the problem for \(6\) Fourier modes.
===Number of Fourier modes
6

We use \(6\) processors in Fourier space.
===Number of processors in Fourier space
6
It means that each processors is solving the problem for \(6/6=1\) Fourier modes.

We do not select specific Fourier modes to solve.
===Select Fourier modes? (true/false)
As a consequence, the code approximates the problem on the first \(6\) Fourier modes.

We approximate the NavierStokes equations by setting:
===Problem type: (nst, mxw, mhd, fhd)
'nst'

We approximate the NavierStokes equations with the velocity field as dependent variable.
===Solve NavierStokes with u (true) or m (false)?
.t.
We note this data is set to true by default. The momentum \(m\) is only used for multiphase flow problem.

We do not restart the computations from previous results.
===Restart on velocity (true/false)
.f.
It means the computation starts from the time \(t=0\).

We use a time step of \(0.0005\) and solve the problem over \(100\) time iterations.
===Time step and number of time iterations
0.0005d0 100

We use a penalty function function to take into account the presence of a solid obstacle.
===Use penalty in NS domain (true/false)?
.t.

We set the number of domains and their label, see the files associated to the generation of the mesh, where the code approximates the NavierStokes equations.
===Number of subdomains in NavierStokes mesh
1
===List of subdomains for NavierStokes mesh
1

We set the number of boundaries with Dirichlet conditions on the velocity field and give their respective labels.
===How many
boundary pieces
for full Dirichlet BCs on velocity?
2
===List of
boundary pieces
for full Dirichlet BCs on velocity
1 2

We set the kinetic Reynolds number \(\Re\).
===Reynolds number
100.d0

We give information on how to solve the matrix associated to the time marching of the velocity.

===Maximum number of iterations for velocity solver
100

===Relative tolerance for velocity solver
1.d6
===Absolute tolerance for velocity solver
1.d10

===Solver type for velocity (FGMRES, CG, ...)
GMRES
===Preconditionner type for velocity solver (HYPRE, JACOBI, MUMPS...)
MUMPS

We give information on how to solve the matrix associated to the time marching of the pressure.

===Maximum number of iterations for pressure solver
100

===Relative tolerance for pressure solver
1.d6
===Absolute tolerance for pressure solver
1.d10

===Solver type for pressure (FGMRES, CG, ...)
GMRES
===Preconditionner type for pressure solver (HYPRE, JACOBI, MUMPS...)
MUMPS

We give information on how to solve the mass matrix.

===Maximum number of iterations for mass matrix solver
100

===Relative tolerance for mass matrix solver
1.d6
===Absolute tolerance for mass matrix solver
1.d10

===Solver type for mass matrix (FGMRES, CG, ...)
CG
===Preconditionner type for mass matrix solver (HYPRE, JACOBI, MUMPS...)
MUMPS

To get the total elapse time and the average time in loop minus initialization, we write:
===Verbose timing? (true/false)
.t.
These informations are written in the file lis
when you run the shell debug_SFEMaNS_template
.
Outputs and value of reference
The outputs of this test are computed with the file post_processing_debug.f90
that can be found in the following directory: ($SFEMaNS_DIR)/MHD_DATA_TEST_CONV_PETSC.
To check the well behavior of the code, we compute four quantities:

The L2 norm of the error on the velocity field.

The H1 norm of the error on the velocity field.

The L2 norm of the divergence of the velocity field.

The L2 norm of the error on the pressure outside the obstacle.
These quantities are computed at the final time \(t=0.05\). They are compared to reference values to attest of the correctness of the code.
These values of reference are in the last lines of the file debug_data_test_24
in the directory ($SFEMaNS_DIR)/MHD_DATA_TEST_CONV_PETSC. They are equal to:
============================================
(cylinder_0.05.FEM)
===Reference results
5.35272511967831415E003 L2 error on velocity
0.41315380860605949 H1 error on velocity
0.19511906134562279 L2 norm of divergence
5.07028095271459204E003 L2 error on pressure outter obstacle
To conclude this test, we show the profile of the approximated pressure and velocity magnitude at the final time. These figures are done in the plane \(y=0\) which is the union of the half plane \(\theta=0\) and \(\theta=\pi\).
Pressure in the plane plane y=0.

Velocity magnitude in the plane plane y=0.
